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Flashing Swords
Pitch Black Books
THE SWORD-AND-SORCERY,
PLANETARY ROMANCE,
& SWASHBUCKLER
TIMELINE

by Ryan Harvey
with Andy Beau, John C. Hocking, Bill King, and Howard Andrew Jones

ca. 700-600 B.C.E.
A copy of The Epic of Gilgamesh is archived in the Library of Asshurbanipal in Assyria. The story dates back to the second millennium B.C.E. Its tale of a mighty hero-king battling monsters and going on a quest to find the secret of immortality contains many elements essential to what will later be termed "sword-and-sorcery." One of the first surviving stories of civilization.

ca. 540 B.C.E.
According to tradition, Pisistratus, the Tyrant of Athens, orders the recording of "standard" versions of two lengthy orally-circulating epic poems, The Iliad and The Odyssey. A probably legendary bard named Homer receives credit for both poems, which had achieved their basic forms during the 8th century. The poems form the basis of the Western literary tradition. The Odyssey, in particular, contains standard elements of fantasy adventure: a wandering hero, an encounter with a seductive sorceress, the outwitting of monsters, and a battle to save the hero's beloved.

270-245 B.C.E.
Probable date of the composition of The Argonautica (attributed to "Apollonius of Rhodes"), which tells the story of Jason and the quest for the Golden Fleece, another quintessential fantasy adventure story that will influence many future authors.

29-19 B.C.E.
Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro ("Virgil") composes the epic Latin poem The Aeneid, combining elements of The Iliad and The Odyssey to tell the adventures of Aeneas, mythical founder of the Roman People. The poem contains many similar fantasy elements from the two earlier works.

700-800 C.E.
Conjectural date for the writing of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, concerning a Scandinavian king who battles the monster Grendel, Grendel's Dam, and a fire lizard. The long poem is the first identifiable work of literature in the English language.

ca. 1275
The Icelandic Volsunga Saga is recorded, although the story dates from far earlier. The tale of the hero Sigurd, his slaying of the dragon Fafnir, and his romance with Brynhild, will have an almost incalculable affect on modern fantasy writers, especially William Morris, J. R. R. Tolkien, Robert E. Howard, and Poul Anderson. The story also forms the basis of the German epic The Nibelungenlied.

1415
In London, printer William Caxton posthumously publishes Sir Thomas Malory's collection of Arthurian romances, Le Morte D'Arthur. Although poems about Arthur have existed for centuries, Malory's version "standardizes" the story and forms the basis of most versions up to the present day.

1611
The first staging of The Tempest by William Shakespeare. The play, about a shipwreck on a fantastic island, contains a sorcerer, an obedient magical servant, and a rebellious monster. The play shows a definite turn toward the fantastic in English drama and the genesis of a new dramatic genre.

1814
The first true historical novel, Sir Walter Scott's Waverly, sees print. More swashbuckling stories will flow from Scott's pen, including the more famous Ivanhoe and The Talisman.

1844
The most famous swashbuckling novel of all time, Alexandre Dumas's The Three Musketeers, appears serially in the French magazine Le Siècle.

1876
The first complete performance of the four operas that compose Der Ring des Nibelungen by Richard Wagner is held in the Bavarian town of Bayreuth. Wagner based the opera cycle on the story told in The Volsunga Saga and it is at the time the most ambitious presentation of sword-and-sorcery material in a medium aside from the printed page.

1882
Ignatius Donnelly, a Minnesota congressman, completes his work of pseudo-science, Atlantis: The Antediluvan World, suggesting that Atlantis really existed and supported an advanced culture. This begins the still-prevalent fascination with the fictitious lost continent that runs through much of sword-and-sorcery.

1887
H. Rider Haggard, an English novelist already famous for his bestselling adventure novel King Solomon's Mines, publishes the fantasy novel She, which will influence many authors of the "Lost Civilization" genre.

1888
Sir Richard Francis Burton completes his sixteen-volume version of The Arabian Nights, a compilation of Arabian, Persian, and Indian legends that coalesced between the 9th and 14th centuries. The stories of magic, djinni, curses, quests, strange islands, monsters, and fabulous voyages captivate the imagination of the English-speaking world.

1891
Publication of H. Rider Haggard's Viking adventure novel Eric Brighteyes. It is a modern work written in an older style, which Haggard composed after consultation with William Morris, a translator of Norse sagas. Many consider it one of Haggard's finest works.

1892
William Morris, printer, designer, and early English socialist, publishes The Well at World's End and The Wood Beyond the World, the first contemporary fantasy novels to use a 'secondary-world' setting. Most historians of speculative fiction consider this the beginning of modern fantasy literature.

1905
Irishman Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, the 18th Lord Dunsany, after a failed attempt at politics, publishes his first work of fantasy, The Gods of Pegana. Under the name Lord Dunsany, he will become the most important British fantasist of the first half of the century.

English author Edwin L. Arnold publishes Gulliver of Mars, an early planetary romance about adventures on a Mars filled with ancient races. Although quaintly Victorian, it will have a large influence on the planetary romances and science-fantasy swashbucklers that will follow.

1912
The American Edgar Rice Burroughs, after failing at various other careers, turns to writing and ignites the planetary romance (sometimes called sword-and-planet) genre when All-Story serializes his first adventure of John Carter of Mars: Under the Moons of Mars (later published in book form as A Princess of Mars). The constant action and wild science-fiction/fantasy concepts practically recreate pulp magazine writing overnight.

1915
Lord Dunsany publishes his fantasy story collection, The Book of Wonder.

Rafael Sabatini's The Sea Hawk, an adventure story about pirates, quickly turns into an international bestseller. Sabatini's other swashbuckling novels, especially 1922's Captain Blood, will meet with further success and spawn multiple imitators and popular film versions.

1917
The first appearance of Harold Lamb's swashbuckling warrior, Khlit the Cossack, in the pages of Adventure. Lamb's vivid pacing, somber tone, and exotic backgrounds will influence a young Robert E. Howard. Today the Khlit tales are among the earliest serial adventure tales that can still be read for pleasure.

1918
Serialized publication of A. Merritt's The Moon Pool, one of the most successful of all scientific romances, begins in All-Story. Many of Merritt's books deal with astonishing lost civilizations and stalwart heroes battling to save beautiful women.

1919
Publication of the satiric fantasy Jurgen: A Comedy of Justice by James Branch Cabell. This is one of the first fantasy novels to be banned by governments.

All Story serializes Johnston McCulley's novel The Curse of Capistrano, introducing a swashbuckling masked hero in Old California who goes by the name Zorro. The story is re-titled The Mark of Zorro when published in book form.

1922
Publication of British civil servant E. R. Eddison's fantasy epic The Worm Ouroboros. It will achieve popularity in the 1960s after the success of The Lord of the Rings.

1923
Weird Tales, "The Unique Magazine," first appears on newsstands in March. J. C. Hennenberger publishes it, and Edwin Baird edits it. This pulp magazine, during its tumultuous and difficult thirty-year history, will offer the first on-going market for fantasy fiction and helps start many careers.

1924
Farnsworth Wright replaces Edwin Baird as editor of Weird Tales after only fourteen issues. Wright's lengthy tenure will lead to the apex of the magazine's creative output. Publication of Lord Dunsany's most important fantasy novel, The King of Elfland's Daughter.

A. Merritt's heroic fantasy, The Ship of Ishtar, first published. Of all Merritt's novel, this one most closely adheres to the modern conception of sword-and-sorcery.

1925
Adventure, one of the top-selling pulp magazines, begins the serialization of Tros of Samothrace by Talbot Mundy. The classical-era swashbuckling adventure about a Greek sailor and his fight against Rome turns into one of the most popular (and intensely debated) stories of the time.

California poet and artist Clark Ashton Smith publishes his first fantasy short story, "The Abominations of Yondo," in the Overland Monthly, starting a nine-year period of critically acclaimed fantasy short stories, most of which appear in Weird Tales.

"Spear and Fang," Texas author Robert E. Howard's first fantasy story published in a pulp magazine, appears in Weird Tales.

1929
Publication in Weird Tales of Robert E. Howard's "The Shadow Kingdom," his first story featuring the Barbarian King Kull, and the first time Howard set a story in a completely fictional fantasy setting.

1932
"The Phoenix on the Sword," the first of Robert E. Howard's Conan stories, debuts in Weird Tales. Howard continues to write more adventures of this barbarian adventurer and his exploits in the fictitious Hyborian Age, most of which will appear in Weird Tales over the next few years. Conan will become the template for many sword-and-sorcery heroes to follow.

1934
After completing the story "The Last Hieroglyph," Clark Ashton Smith ceases writing prose fiction, only periodically dabbling in the form for the remaining years of his life.

"Black God's Kiss" appears in Weird Tales. The story introduces an early sword-and-sorcery heroine, the red-haired Jiriel of Joiry. The author, C. L. Moore, is one of first women to establish herself in the speculative fiction field.

1936
On June 11, Robert E. Howard, foundational American author of sword-and-sorcery, commits suicide in Cross Plains, Texas.

1937
J. R. R. Tolkien's children's fantasy novel, The Hobbit, is published in the U.K. Its success will eventually lead to the creation of The Lord of the Rings.

1939
John W. Campbell, editor of the science-fiction magazine Astounding at Street & Smith Publications, starts a fantasy magazine to compete with Weird Tales, called Unknown and later Unknown Worlds.

"Two Sought Adventure" (later re-titled "The Jewels in the Forest") appears in Unknown. The story introduces Fritz Leiber's sword-and-sorcery heroic duo, Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser, and adds a level of sly, satiric comedy to the genre. Leiber will fitfully write further adventures of the duo for the rest of his life.

Donald Wandrei and August Derleth create Arkham House Publishers to keep alive the writing from Weird Tales. The company survives to this day.

1940
Due to his increasing Parkinson's Disease, Farnsworth Wright steps down from editing Weird Tales in April. Dorothy McIlwraith replaces him.

1943
War paper shortages force the closure of Campbell's Unknown Worlds.

1950
Jack Vance's The Dying Earth is published after years of rejection. This fascinating collection contains jewel-like, genre-bending tales of adventure set in a far future when the Earth is in its final days. The work shows the influence of James Branch Cabell and Clark Ashton Smith, but with a unique voice. The book has remained in print ever since and marks the start of Vance's prolific career.

Gnome Press publishes in hardcover Robert E. Howard's only completed novel, The Hour of the Dragon, under the title Conan the Conqueror. This leads to a whole series reprinting Howard's Conan tales.

1953
Leigh Brackett, one of the best writers of planetary romances, publishes her classic Martian swashbuckling-adventure, The Sword of Rhiannon.

1954
In September, Weird Tales, burdened with debt, publishes its last issue. Other publications will later revive the magazine's name, but this ends the official run of Weird Tales as a pulp magazine.

Poul Anderson's dark sword-and-sorcery novel based on Nordic sources, The Broken Sword, is published in a small run. Although it attracts little attention at the time, it will have a tremendous effect on later writers, especially Michael Moorcock. Anderson will go on to a career writing science fiction, although he continues to write Viking tales when he can.

Allen & Unwin releases the first volume of J. R. R. Tolkien's epic fantasy The Lord of the Rings (two later volumes will follow in the next year). Sales are slow but steady at first.

1957
Death of Lord Dunsany (October 25).

Steve Reeves stars as the eponymous hero in the Italian film Hercules. This begins the genre of the sword-and-sandal movie series ("peplum" in Italian) starring bodybuilding champions and made principally by Italian filmmakers shooting in Spanish locations. The series lasts for approximately the next ten years. Steve Reeves and these movies greatly influence future sword-and-sorcery actor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

1958
Ray Harryhausen's swashbuckling and monster and magic-filled fantasy movie, The 7th Voyage of Sinbad, turns into one of the surprise hits of the year. This starts a series of fantasy films produced by Harryhausen and his partner Charles H. Schneer which continue until 1981. The best of these, Jason and the Argonauts (1964) and The Golden Voyage of Sinbad (1974), remain popular fantasy movies today.

1961
Fritz Leiber first suggests the use of the term "sword-and-sorcery" to Michael Moorcock as a way of distinguishing the particular sub-genre of fantasy in which they write.

Science-Fantasy Magazine publishes the first stories of Michael Moorcock's doomed and brooding hero, Elric of Melniboné.

Death of Clark Ashton Smith (August 14).

1962
Michael Moorcock's novel The Eternal Champion introduces the concept of the multi-incarnation sword-and-sorcery hero that will run through much of his fantasy fiction.

1965
Ballantine Books releases the first authorized editions of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings in paperback in the U.S. This starts the phenomenal worldwide success of the book and the invigoration of fantasy as a viable publishing genre.

1966
Lancer Books releases Conan the Adventurer (with a cover by Frank Frazetta), the first of a series of paperbacks collecting Howard's Conan stories. The success of these books in the wake of the popularity of The Lord of the Rings further fuels the sword-and-sorcery publishing boom.

1968
John Jakes, later author of mainstream American history novels, releases the novel Brak the Barbarian, the first in a series about his Conan-influenced hero.

1969
Gardner F. Fox's Kothar—Barbarian Swordsman and Lin Carter's Thongor and the Wizard of Lemuria (expanded from the shorter The Wizard of Lemuria) appear, beginning two of the most sustained and imitative Conan-influenced series and signaling a highpoint in the literary influence of Robert E. Howard's character.

Lin Carter begins editing the "Adult Fantasy Series" for Ballantine Books. The anthologies in this series reprint sword-and-fantasy stories from the pulps and earlier. Under the banner of a mainstream publisher, Carter is able to bring the works of virtually forgotten fantasy authors to the general reading public. Without this series, stories by Lord Dunsany, Clark Ashton Smith, William Morris, and others might possibly have never reached a new generation of readers.

The start of a novel series by "Jeffrey Lord" (a publisher's house-name used by several authors) about a British secret agent who is transported to a new dimension in each book. In twenty-six of the thirty-seven books, the dimensions are pre-industrial and the weapons used are swords and other bladed weapons. These stories have similarities to the planetary romance genre, substituting different dimensions for alien planets. The series runs throughout the 1970s.

1970
Fritz Leiber's novella Ill Met in Lankhmar, detailing the first real meeting between Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser, wins the Hugo science fiction award.

Roy Thomas (writer) and Barry Windsor-Smith (artist) start the Marvel comic Conan the Barbarian, based on Robert E. Howard's character. The popularity of this comic and its spin-offs will lead to a resurgence of interest in Conan throughout the decade.

Publication of Karl Edward Wagner's Darkness Weaves with Many Shades (later shortened to Darkness Weaves), his first novel of the immortal warrior Kane.

1972
In Issue #23 of Conan the Barbarian, Thomas and Windsor-Smith introduce the red-haired adventuress Red Sonja (based loosely on a Howard heroine named Red Sonya), who will spawn her own sword-and-sorcery franchise.

1973
The first volume of Lin Carter's Flashing Swords anthology showcases the work of the members of SAGA (The Sword-and-Sorcery Guild of America).

Death of J.R.R. Tolkien (September).

1974
The first appearance of Imaro, whom Charles Saunders has said (in an interview here) he "specifically created as the brother who could kick Tarzan's ass." The first Imaro story was snapped up by Lin Carter for the Year's Best Fantasy series in 1975 and other tales of the mighty warrior followed swiftly, including an ill-fated series of novels published by DAW in the '80s. Imaro is memorable not just because was the first real non-white sword and sorcery hero; the stories are well crafted and imbued with a distinct sense of place, fast-paced and exciting adventures that deserve a wider audience.

Gary Gygax and David Arneson release through Gygax's company, Tactical Studies Rules (TSR), a fantasy gaming system called Dungeons & Dragons. Borrowing heavily from popular fantasy writers, the game will evolve into the first role-playing game (RPG) and create a new genre. D&D and sword-and-sorcery will become synonymous in the 1980s, and the game introduces many young players to the genre, and eventually spawns its own successful novel-publishing division.

1976
Michael Crichton's Eaters of the Dead takes the swashbuckling historical—blended with sword-and-sorcery—to the mainstream and the bestseller lists.

1977
The first volume of Andrew J. Offutt's paperback anthology, Swords Against Darkness, collects brand-new tales of sword-and-sorcery.

1978
Leigh Brackett dies soon after completing the first draft of the screenplay of what many consider the ultimate planetary romance film: The Empire Strikes Back.

1979
Robert Asprin's Thieves World anthology begins the first "shared world" series set in a sword-and-sorcery milieu. Contributors include Poul Anderson, Andrew J. Offutt, Lynn Abbey, and Hugo-winning science-fiction author Joe Haldeman.

Barry Sadler, a former Green Beret soldier in Vietnam, begins his Casca series. This series tells of the adventures of Casca Longinius, the Roman soldier who pierced Christ's side at the Crucifixion. Cursed to immortality, he fights for various armies and civilizations throughout history. These swashbuckling adventures follow a single warrior through history's many wars and battles.

1981
The release of the movie Conan the Barbarian from Universal Pictures, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and directed by John Milius. The smash success of the film ignites Schwarzenegger's career and leads to a flood of low-budget sword-and-sorcery imitator films throughout the first half of the decade.

1982
After the suicide of her son Irving Pulling, Patricia Pulling begins a crusade against Dungeons & Dragons and other fantasy role-playing games for their allegedly 'evil' influence on children and supposed—but unsubstantiated—role in her son's death. This starts a nearly decade-long parental mistrust of fantasy and sword-in-sorcery in general, mostly fueled by urban legends and unsupported paranoia that the genre leads youths into practicing black magic and joining satanic cults.

Tor Books begins a series of Conan novels by new authors to the genre. This series will be continue until 1996, totaling forty-one books of varying quality. Robert Jordan, who will later become a major name in epic fantasy with his "Wheel of Time" series, writes the first seven of the Tor Conan novels.

1983
Michael Shea wins the World Fantasy Award with his short story collection Nifft the Lean, an adventurous thief in an invented, fantastical world. While Shea's moody, ornate style takes far more cues from Vance, Clark Ashton Smith, and to some extent Leiber than it does from Robert E. Howard, this work is the first sword and sorcery collection ever so honored.

1984
Century, a UK book firm, publishes David Gemmell's Legend which remains in print as of this writing. Gemmell quickly rises to bestseller status in the United Kingdom. He is slower to catch on in the United States, where publishers seem gun shy of sword and sorcery, but once his work is picked up by Del Rey he develops a loyal following. Gemmell is perhaps the only writer earning his living solely with sword and sorcery who writes actively through the eighties, nineties, and into the new millennium. His work is best known for his flawed, reluctant aging heroes and action-packed battle scenes.

1985
The failure of a movie adaptation of Red Sonja, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and Brigitte Neilsen, signals the end of the sword-and-sorcery movie craze.

1992
Death of Fritz Leiber (September).

2000
May: The success of Ridley Scott's Roman action picture, Gladiator, re-ignites interest in historical swashbuckler films.

2001
Death of Poul Anderson (July). One of his last novels is a Scandinavian epic closely imitating the Icelandic sagas: Mother of Kings.

In December, Peter Jackson's The Fellowship of the Ring reaches theaters. This first of three films comprising an adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkein's The Lord of the Rings meets with massive global success. The three films will gross over $3 billion worldwide, and the final installment receives eleven Oscars (each one it was nominated for), including Best Picture. The success of the films increases sales of fantasy novels and begins a flood of fantasy-themed movie projects.

2004
In January Dark Horse Comics brings Conan back to comic books in a series that discards Marvel's work and begins the saga anew. The initial issues, authored by Kurt Busiek (who enjoyed critical success as an author of Marvel's The Avengers), meet with tremendous sales.

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Thursday, October 23, 2014
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